+49 170 / 862 19 41 info@graf-uebersetzungen.com

Professional translations, seminars & coaching


For over 25 years

Startseite » Glossary


Get to know some of the most important terms in the field of translation, interpreting and training through this glossary. From “A” for Apostille to “Z” for Certified, you will find a brief explanation for each term. Do you have any further questions? I will be happy to advise you on your project. Contact me now or take a look at the FAQs.

[ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z ]


The “Hague Apostille” is a written endorsement that universally follows a specific pattern. The term was defined in the Hague Convention for the purpose of exempting foreign public documents from legalisation of 5 October 1961. An apostille confirms the authenticity of a signature and the authority to issue a public document, the original of which must be presented for this purpose.

ID card
As an interpreter sworn in by the Stuttgart Regional Court, I carry the appropriate ID with me for all interpreting assignments.

Public documents (e.g. birth or death certificates, extracts from the commercial register, etc.) require certification by the translator when translated into the target language. This is done by a certifying note at the end of the translation as well as by the translator’s stamp and personal signature. The translator’s endorsement, stamp and signature turn a translation into an official and legally valid document.

Swearing in ceremony
In Germany, it is essential for court interpreters in court proceedings or before the authorities to be sworn in (exceptions exist).
The swearing-in ceremony of new judicial interpreters takes place, at intervals to be determined, in a short ceremony at the regional court of the respective federal state.

Courts may suspend the execution of a custodial sentence of not more than 2 years for probation so that convicted persons may obtain remission of the sentence through good conduct during the probationary period (§56 StGB).

chuchoter (French) = whisper = whispered interpretation, e.g. at board meetings.

Whenever texts are reused, this office pays very close attention to copyright, i.e. copyrights.

Interpreting equipment
Wireless radio interpreting systems offer an excellent alternative to the classic infrared interpreting systems for any number of foreign-language participants, e.g. at conferences.

Interpreter database
With the Interpreter and Translator Database, the German State’s justice administrations have created a platform that provides access and information on sworn, publicly appointed interpreters and translators in all states of the Federal Republic.

There is no difference in effect between the terms “sworn”, “sworn” or “authorised” in the case of translators.

The translation of decrees or interim injunctions of the courts is carried out promptly and goes directly back to the respective courts. Restraining order

Life-long imprisonment
As far as adults are concerned a distinction is made between life imprisonment, of which at least 15 years are to be served in the correctional institution, and juvenile sentences.

In Germany, jurisdictions and judicial instances are structured as follows:
1st instance: Local District Court (AG); 2nd instance: Regional Court (LG) of the respective federal state;
3rd instance: Higher Regional Court (OLG) of the respective federal state; 4th instance: Federal Supreme Court (BGH)

Use of interpreters
If parties to court cases do not speak sufficient German, a generally sworn interpreter is called in. In this way, the right of the foreign party to the proceedings to be heard and to be able to follow the proceedings linguistically is satisfied.

An idiom is the way of speaking of a specific, delimited group.

JVEG – Justice Remuneration and Compensation Act
The so-called Justice Remuneration and Compensation Act (Justizvergütungs- und Entschädigungsgesetz) regulates the fees of justice interpreters in §9, who – as of 2021 – receive € 85.00 net / hour for their services.

The meaning of the word “consecutive” is “following in time” (in contrast to “simultaneous” = at the same time). In interpreted proceedings, the speaker first speaks in short sentences or paragraphs (e.g. a lecturer or a defendant); the interpreter then translates the contents presented into the target language (“following in time”).

Stuttgart Regional Court
For all certified interpreters and translators, the Stuttgart Regional Court is the place for their swearing-in ceremony for later translation tasks and to be issued with a corresponding ID card.

Court “summons” are sent to interpreters, lawyers, jurors, etc. for the purpose of notifying the court date, venue, etc.

Especially in court, interpreters are not required to express their own opinion. Their job is primarly to provide a faithful reproduction of spoken contents.

Notarial certification
Notarial authentications serve the purpose of recording written declarations made (in the notary’s office or elsewhere). Notaries usually also provide information on the meaning of such a declaration or its legal scope.

Notary’s offices
As of 1 January 2020, Germany counted approx. 6,900 notaries. With regard to freelance notaries in the Stuttgart area, – 138 locations are counted as of 1 January 2018.

Optimisation of an interpretation service
After a negotiation, it is recommended to carry out a brief reflection on the technical (and missing) terms used.

Personal documents
Personal documents” usually include birth and death certificates, marriage certificates, certificates of education and studies, divorce decrees, academic diplomas and many more.

“The greatest enemy of quality is haste”, a wise saying that has special validity for carefully working translators.

Good references are always welcome among translators, regardless of whether they are shared in person, appear on the website’s Google profile or on social media.

Meaning: at the same time, jointly. This refers to the simultaneous, spoken translation (often via headphones) of a speech, lecture or hearings in a courtroom.

Lay judges
Honorary judges. Lay judges are selected by lot for a period of 4 years from a list of nominees drawn up by the municipal council at district or regional courts.

For assignments lasting several hours or a whole day, teams of two or three interpreters should be used; these will alternate and support each other in intervals. Research and experience have shown that concentration and quality of interpreters after max. 30 minutes.

A so-called “over-certification” – also called an “apostille” – is often required for certified translations that are to be used abroad. In the Stuttgart area, this means that certified translations, prepared by the translation agency, is submitted to the Regional Court of Stuttgart, Urbanstr. 20, and provided there with an apostille. See: https://landgericht-stuttgart.justiz-bw.de/pb/,Lde/Startseite/Service/Apostillen+_+Legalisations

Swearing-in ceremony
This brief ceremony applies when a publicly appointed interpreter (and also translator) has taken a “general oath” before a district court or an interior authority This interpreters’ oath is administered in accordance with section 189 para 2 of This interpreters’ oath is administered in accordance with section 189 para 2 of

VVU e. V.
Association of court interpreters and certified translators e.V. Esslingen, please go to https://www.vvu-bw.de/ with a list of sworn translators and interpreters.

Word-of-mouth advertising, they say, is the best: from company to company, from privates to privates. Advertising is for translators as important as for any other trade.

The certification remark at the bottom of a translation produced by a sworn translator is unfortunately often confused with a “certification”. In English, the term “certified translation” is used, which tends to lead to a confusing “overlapping” of terms.

Professional training

Etiquette training

Get to know the correct and appropriate manners with international business partners so as to successfully master a confident and sovereign appearance in every situation. Feel free to request a quote now!

Business English

Learn the most important English vocabulary and phrases in order to convince your business partners confidently and competently in all business situations. Feel free to request a quote now!

Tailor-made seminars

Seminars, trainings, lectures, trainings for executives, tax consultants, law firms, real estate agents, authorities, companies or private individuals.


Graf Training & Translations
Doris Graf
Talstraße 17
70794 Filderstadt



Personal interpretation service at fairs and exhibitions
Technical translations
Personal interpretation service at fairs and exhibitions
Technical translations
Doris Graf Translations